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Table of contents

The Quadrupole Cusp: A Universal Accelerator, or From Radiation Belts to Cosmic Rays



Two “unsolved” physics problems

McIlwain, 1966

Galactic Cosmic Ray Spectrum

Plasma Thermodynamics

What is Acceleration?

Efficiency of Acceleration

Why does a Trap help?

The Fermi-Trap Accelerator

The Dipole Trap

The Quadrupole Trap

PowerPoint Presentation

Tsyganenko Cusps

Why is the Dipole a better trap than Accelerator?

Kolmogorov, Arnol’d, Moser Theorem

Comparison of Dipole & Quadrupole

Quadrupole Trap in the Laboratory (Two 1-T magnets, -400V, 50mTorr)

Particle Tracing in T96 cusp, untrapped

Periodic, well trapped

Chaotic, barely trapped

Chaotic, nearly trapped

e- Trapping Regions of T96 Cusp

H+ Trapping in T96 Cusp

Poincaré Plots?

How does the Quadrupole Accelerate?

Acceleration via Random Impulses

Cusp Orientation When the cusp points toward the sun, it “opens”, when it points away, it “closes”. Likewise, SW pressure pulses will shrink the cusp as a whole, e.g. radially compressing it.

Fermi I,II vs Alfven I,II

Signatures of Cusp Acceleration

Problem #1: Source of ORBE

Prediction Problems

ORBE (McIlwain 1966)

McIlwain 1966

Details of Injection (#1&5)

Koons & Gorney Prediction Filter

The Prediction Paradox

The Argument

Slide 40

Slide 41

Problems with Cusp Acceleration

Diamagnetic Effect of Cold Plasma

Cusp Diamagnetic Cavities

Energetic Energy Dispersed Events

Model Predictions

Scaling Laws

Slide 48

More Predictions

Problem #2: Source of GCR

GCR Spectra

Properties of GCR

Are GCR from Supernovae?

Low energy nuclei composition

Some more peculiar coincidences

Quadrupole Cusps Pressure Balance

Energy Sources for GCR

Future Work


Author: Robert Sheldon

E-mail: r*

(due to spammers, delete asterisk)

Homepage: RbS

Further information:
NSSTC Colloquium 3/19/2004