23. We find the velocity necessary for the jump from the motion when the person leaves the ground to the highest point, where the velocity is zero: v^2 = vjump^2 + 2(- g)h; 0 = vjump^2 + 2(- 9.80 m/s^2)(0.80 m), which gives vjump = 3.96 m/s. We can find the acceleration required to achieve this velocity during the crouch from vjump^2 = v0^2 + 2a(y - y0); (3.96 m/s)^2 = 0 + 2a(0.20 m - 0), which gives a = 39.2 m/s^2. Using the force diagram for the person during the crouch, we can write Sum(F) = ma: FN - mg = ma; FN - (61 kg)(9.80 m/s^2) = (61 kg)(39.2 m/s^2), which gives FN = 3.0 x 10^3 N. From Newton?s third law, the person will exert an equal and opposite force on the ground: 3.0 x 10^3 N downward.

35. (a) Because the buckets are at rest, the acceleration is zero. We write Sum(F) = ma from the force diagram for each bucket: lower bucket: FT2 - m2 g = m2 a = 0, which gives FT2 = m2 g = (3.5 kg)(9.80 m/s^2) = 34 N. upper bucket: FT1 - FT2 - m1 g = m1 a = 0, which gives FT1 = FT2 + m1 g = 34 N + (3.5 kg)(9.80 m/s^2) = 68 N. (b) The two buckets must have the same acceleration. We write Sum(F) = ma from the force diagram for each bucket: lower bucket: FT2 - m2 g = m2 a, which gives FT2 = m2(g + a) = (3.5 kg)(9.80 m/s^2 + 1.60 m/s^2) = 40 N. upper bucket: FT1 - FT2 - m1g = m1a, which gives FT1 = FT2 + m1(g + a) = 40 N + (3.5 kg)(9.80 m/s^2 + 1.60 m/s^2) = 80 N. Note that we could have taken both buckets as the system to find the tension in the upper cord.

41. We choose the origin for x at the bottom of the plane. Note that down the plane (the direction of the acceleration) is positive. (a) From the force diagram for the block, we have Sum(F) = ma: x-component: mg sin q = m a; y-component: FN - mg cos q = 0. From the x-equation we find the acceleration: a = g sin q = (9.80 m/s^2) sin 22deg = 3.67 m/s^2. For the motion of the block, we find the distance until it momentarily stops from v^2 = v0^2 + 2a(x - x0); 0 = (- 4.0 m/s)^2 + 2(3.67 m/s^2)(x - 0), which gives x = - 2.2 m. Thus the block travels 2.2 m up the plane. (b) We find the time from the start to return to the bottom from x = x0 + v0 t + 1/2a t^2; 0 = 0 + (- 4.0 m/s)t + 1/2(3.67 m/s^2)t^2, which gives t = 0 (the start), and t = 2.2 s.

46. (a) (b) If we select all three blocks as the system, we have Sum(Fx) = m ax: F = (m1 + m2 + m3)a, which gives a = F/(m1 + m2 + m3). (c) For the three blocks individually, for Sum(Fx) = m ax, we have Fnet1 = m1 a = m1 F/(m1 + m2 + m3); Fnet2 = m2 a = m2 F/(m1 + m2 + m3); Fnet3 = m3 a = m3 F/(m1 + m2 + m3). (d) From the force diagram for block 1 we have Fnet1 = F - F12 = m1 a, which gives F12 = F - m1 a = F - m1 F/(m1 + m2 + m3) = F(m2 + m3)/(m1 + m2 + m3). This is also F21 (Newton's third law). From the force diagram for block 2 we have Fnet2 = F21 - F23 = m2a, which gives F23 = F21 - m2 a = F - m1a - m2a = F - (m1 + m2)F/(m1 + m2 + m3) = F m3/(m1 + m2 + m3). This is also F32 (Newton's third law). (e) When we use the given values, we get a = F/(m1 + m2 + m3) = (96.0 N)/(12.0 kg + 12.0 kg + 12.0 kg) = 2.67 m/s2. Fnet1 = m1 a = (12.0 kg)(2.67 m/s^2) = 32.0 N. Fnet2 = m2 a = (12.0 kg)(2.67 m/s^2) = 32.0 N. Fnet3 = m3 a = (12.0 kg)(2.67 m/s^2) = 32.0 N. Because the blocks have the same mass and the same acceleration, we expect Fnet1 = Fnet2 = Fnet3 = 32.0 N. For the forces between the blocks we have F21 = F12 = F - m1 a = 96.0 N - (12.0 kg)(2.67 m/s^2) = 64.0 N. F32 = F23 = F - m1 a - m2a = 96.0 N - (12.0 kg)(2.67 m/s^2) - (12.0 kg)(2.67 m/s2) = 32.0 N.

67. (a) The forces and coordinate systems are shown in the diagram. Note that we take up the incline as the positive direction. From the force diagram, with the block m2 as the system, we can write Sum(F) = m a: y-component: m2 g - FT = m2 a. From the force diagram, with the block m1 as the system, we can write Sum(F) = m a: x-component: FT - m1 g sin q = m1 a. When we eliminate FT between these two equations, we get a = (m2 - m1 sin q)g/(m1 + m2). = [1.00 kg - (1.00 kg)(sin 30deg)](9.80 m/s^2)/(1.00 kg + 1.00 kg) = 2.45 m/s^2 (up the incline). (b) If the system remains at rest, the acceleration is zero, so we have a = (m2 - m1 sin q)g/(m1 + m2) = 0, or m2 = m1 sin q = (1.00 kg)(sin 30deg) = 0.50 kg. (c) From the force equations, we have FT = m2(g - a). For part (a), we get FT = (1.00 kg)(9.80 m/s^2 - 2.45 m/s^2) = 7.35 N. For part (b), we get FT = (0.50 kg)(9.80 m/s^2 - 0) = 4.9 N.

75. There are only three different tensions. The tension in the rope that goes around both pulleys is constant: FT1 = FT2 = F. We choose up positive and assume that the piano is lifted with no acceleration. If the masses of the pulleys are negligible, we can write Sum(Fy) = m ay. (a) If we select the piano and bottom pulley as the system, we have FT2 + FT1 - Mg = 0, which gives 2 FT1 = Mg, or FT1 = F = 1/2 Mg. (b) For the individual elements, we have piano: FT4 - Mg = 0, which gives FT4 = Mg. bottom pulley: FT2 + FT1 - FT4 = 0, which gives 2FT1 = FT4 = Mg, or FT1 = FT2 = 1/2 Mg. top pulley: FT3 - FT1 - FT2 - F = 0, which gives FT3 = 3FT1 = 1/3 Mg.

25. (a) If we assume that he accelerates for a time t1 over the first 45 m and reaches a top speed of v, we have x1 = 1/2(v0 + v)t1 = 1/2v t1 , or t1 = 2 x1/v = 2(45 m)/v = (90 m)/v. Because he maintains this top speed for the last 55 m, we have t2 = (55 m)/v. Thus the total time is T = t1 + t2 = (90 m)/v+ (55 m)/v = 10.0 s. When we solve for v, we get v = 14.5 m/s; so the acceleration time is t1 = (90 m)/(14.5 m/s) = 6.21 s. We find the constant acceleration for the first 45 m from a = v/t = (14.5 m/s - 0)/(6.21 s) = 2.34 m/s^2. We find the horizontal force component that will produce this acceleration from F = ma = (62 kg)(2.34 m/s^2) = 1.4 x 10^2 N. (b) As we found in part (a): v = 14.5 m/s.

32. (a) (b) Because the velocity is constant, the acceleration is zero. We write Sum(F) = ma from the force diagram for the mower: x-component: F cos q - FR = ma = 0, which gives FR = (78.0 N) cos 45deg = 55.2 N. (c) y-component: FN - mg - F sin q = ma = 0, which gives FN = (13.0 kg)(9.80 m/s^2) + (78.0 N) sin 45deg = 183 N. (d) We can find the acceleration from the motion of the mower: a = v/t = (1.2 m/s - 0)/(2.0 s) = 0.60 m/s^2. For the x-component of Sum(F) = ma we now have F cos q - FR = ma; F cos 45deg - 55.2 N = (13.0 kg)(0.60 m/s^2), which gives F = 89 N.

40. (a) From the force diagram for the block, we have Sum(F) = ma: x-component: mg sin q = ma; y-component: FN - mg cos q = 0. From the x-equation we find the acceleration: a = g sin q = (9.80 m/s^2) sin 22.0deg = 3.67 m/s^2. (b) For the motion of the block, we find the speed from v^2 = v0^2 + 2a(x - x0); v^2 = 0 + 2(3.67 m/s^2)(12.0 m - 0), which gives v = 9.39 m/s.

50. Forces are drawn for each of the blocks. Because the string doesn't stretch, the tension is the same at each end of the string, and the accelerations of the blocks have the same magnitude. Note that we take the positive direction in the direction of the acceleration for each block. We write Sum(F) = ma from the force diagram for each block: y-component (block 1): FT - m1 g = m1 a; y-component (block 2): m2 g - FT = m2 a. By adding the equations, we find the acceleration: a = (m2 - m1)g/(m1 + m2) = (3.2 kg - 2.2 kg)(9.80 m/s^2)/(3.2 kg + 2.2 kg) = 1.81 m/s^2 for both blocks. For the motion of block 1 we take the origin at the ground and up positive. When block 2 hits the ground, we have v1^2 = v01^2 + 2a(y1 - y01) = 0 + 2(1.81 m/s^2) (3.60 m - 1.80 m), which gives v1 = 2.56 m/s. Once block 2 hits the ground, FT Æ 0 and block 1 will have the downward acceleration of g. For this motion of block 1 up to the highest point reached, we have v^2 = v1^2 + 2a(h - y1) 0 = (2.56 m/s)^2 + 2(- 9.80 m/s^2) (h - 3.60 m), which gives h = 3.93 m.

68. (a) Forces are drawn for each of the blocks. Note that we use two different coordinate systems. We write Sum(F) = ma from the force diagram for each block: For block 1: x-component: m1 g sin q1 - FT = m1a. For block 2: x-component: FT - m2 g sin q2 = m2 a. By adding the equations, we have a = (m1 sin q1 - m2 sin q2)g/(m1 + m2). (b) If the system remains at rest, the acceleration is zero, so we have a = (m1 sin q1 - m2 sin q2)g/(m1 + m2) = 0, or m1 sin q1 = m2 sin q2; (5.0 kg)(sin 30deg) = m2 sin 20deg, which gives m2 = 7.3 kg. From the force equations, we have FT = m1(g sin q1 - a) = (5.0 kg)[(9.80 m/s^2 )(sin 30deg) - 0] = 25 N.

73. From the force diagram for the watch, we have Sum(F) = ma: x-component: FT sin q = ma; y-component: FT cos q - mg = 0, or FT cos q = mg. If we divide the two equations, we find the acceleration: a = g tan q = (9.80 m/s^2) tan 25deg = 4.56 m/s^2. For the motion of the aircraft, we find the takeoff speed from v = v0 + at = 0 + (4.56 m/s^2)(18 s) = 82 m/s (300 km/h).

53. If m does not move on the incline, both blocks must have the same horizontal acceleration. From the force diagram for the block of mass m, we have Sum(F) = ma: x-component: FN1 sin q = ma; y-component: FN1 cos q - mg = 0. When we combine these two equations, we get: a = g tan q, and FN1 = mg/cos q. From the force diagram for the block of mass M, we have Sum(F) = ma: x-component: F - FN1 sin q = Ma; y-component: FN2 -FN1 cos q - Mg = 0. We use the previous results in the first equation to get F = mg tan q + Mg tan q = (m + M)g tan q.

55. The force diagrams for each of the masses and the movable pulley are shown. Note that we take down as positive and the indicated accelerations are relative to the fixed pulley. A downward acceleration of m3 means an upward acceleration of the movable pulley. If we call ar the (downward) acceleration of m1 with respect to the movable pulley, we have a1 = ar - a3 and a2 = - ar - a3 , because the acceleration of m2 with respect to the pulley must be the negative of m1?s acceleration with respect to the pulley. If the mass of the pulley is negligible, for the movable pulley we write Sum(Fy) = m ay: 2FT1 - FT3 = (0)(- a3), so 2FT1 = FT3. For each of the masses, for Sum(Fy) = m ay we get mass m1: m1 g - FT1 = m1 a1 = m1(ar - a3), mass m2: m2 g - FT1 = m2 a2 = m2(- ar - a3), mass m3: m3 g - FT3 = m3 a3. We have four equations for the four unknowns: FT1 , FT3 , ar , and a3. After some careful algebra, we get a3 = [(m1 m3 + m2 m3 - 4m1 m2)/(m1 m3 + m2 m3 + 4m1 m2)]g; ar = [2(m1 m3 - m2 m3)/(m1 m3 + m2 m3 + 4m1 m2)]g; FT1 = [4m1 m2 m3/(m1 m3 + m2 m3 + 4m1 m2)]g; and FT3 = [8m1 m2 m3/(m1 m3 + m2 m3 + 4m1 m2)]g. We can now find the other accelerations: a1 = [(m1 m3 ? 3m2 m3 + 4m1 m2)/(m1 m3 + m2 m3 + 4m1 m2)]g; a2 = [(- 3m1 m3 + m2 m3 + 4m1 m2)/(m1 m3 + m2 m3 + 4m1 m2)]g.